Prediabetes is the state in which blood glucose levels are above normal but have not reached that of diabetes. This state is also referred to as borderline diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). These are associated with insulin resistance and are risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, obesity, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain ethnic groups are also at high-risk. Those in this stratum (IGT or IFG) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Of the two, impaired glucose tolerance better predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases that are characterized by hyperglycemia and defects in insulin production in the pancreas and/or impaired tolerance to insulin effects. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Because the disease can be insidious, the diagnosis is often delayed. Effects of the disease can be macrovascular, as seen in the cardiovascular system/arthrosclerosis, or microvascular, as seen with retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy.